Is the Sun a Ball of Gas and without a Real Surface?
According to the standard model, the Sun does not have a real surface, since it is considered as a fully compressible ball of ideal gas. This view is still accepted, although, modern space devices have provided different data that do not support the view that the Sun is a big ball of gas.
If one looks to all the frequencies in Helioseismology from the lowest frequency up to gamma rays there is no question that the Sun has a real surface. Also, Helioseismology data clearly show that the core of the Sun undergoes solid body rotation.
More importantly, the existence of the tachocline layer is in itself, sufficient evidence that directly contradicts the idea that the Sun is entirely a ball of gas.
The Standard Solar Model Cannot Explain the Solar Spectrum
In spite of the fact that the law of thermal emission is one of the main reasons that contributed to the misunderstanding of our star, Kirchhoff's conclusion about the cause for the presence of Fraunhofer lines is brilliant and totally accurate.
In 1862, he said the following: "In order to explain the occurrence of the dark lines in the solar spectrum, we must assume that the solar atmosphere encloses a luminous nucleus, producing a continuous spectrum, the brightness of which exceeds a certain limit. The most probable supposition which can be made respecting the Sun's constitution is that it consists of a solid or liquid nucleus, heated to a certain temperature of the brightest whiteness, surrounded by an atmosphere at a somewhat lower temperature."
Kirchhoff understood and he was correct in this case, that condensed matter is needed in order to produce the solar spectrum. Without a doubt, the presence of Fraunhofer lines, constitute one of the most obvious evidence that the Sun is made of condensed matter.
The link below contains some of the research activities of the leading researcher at SHRAIRFUSION: https://scholar.google.hu/scholar?hl=hu&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=jamal+shrair&oq =
Jamal S. Shrair, PhD
Story Source and Image Credit: https://watchers.news/2018/10/21/shrairfusion-model-the-absolute-empirical-evidence-of-the-physical-reality-of-the-sun/